Legal mechanisms of implementation of the constitutional status of the President: experience of Hungary

Keywords: the President of Hungary, the Constitutional Court of Hungary, protection of democratic activities, protection of constitutional human rights and freedoms.

Abstract

The purpose of the article is the analysis of legal mechanisms of implementation of the constitutional status of the President of Hungary, in particular, in the domain of protection of democratic activities of the State apparatus.

Scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of the constitutional provisions governing the participation of the President of Hungary in the legislative process has been carried out.

Conclusions. Тhe laws of the constitutional significance which have a major impact on the content of presidential powers in the context of determining the influence of the president on the regulatory and legal framework formation, and determine the actors in the legislative field, are highlighted. Based on the retrospective analysis, it is found that the President of Hungary plays a secondary role in the legislative process. In the period from 1989 to 2010 the function of protection of the democratic activities of the State apparatus and protection of the constitutional human rights and freedoms from narrowing of the scope of existing social rights on the part of the legislator, was taken over by the Constitutional Court of Hungary. In this regard, the method of influence of the Constitutional Court on law-making process is studied and the dominant legal paradigm of the Hungarian system of checks and balances and its theoretical basis in the period from 1989 to 2010 is outlined. Further, special emphasis is placed on the method of dismantling of the «old» Constitution of 1989 within the current system of checks and balances and establishment of a new system of constitutional and legal relations with the Basic Law of 2011. In the framework of the new political situation, the President of Hungary remain a respected subject of the constitutional and legal relations with rather limited legal capacity. The capacity of the Constitutional Court, in its turn, was limited by the legal framework. In our opinion, the current political and legal system of Hungary does not implement the concept of mutual checks and balances between the highest bodies of state authority. In these conditions, effectiveness of the democratic control of state institutions is rather uncertain. The severity of the problem of implementation of the function of protecting the democratic activities of the State apparatus by the President, in particular, in the context of current trends in the development of the Ukrainian state and legal system, prompted the authors to express their views on resolving this issue.

References

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References:
1. The Fundamental Law of Hungary (April 25, 2011). URL: https://nemzetikonyvtar.kormany.hu/ (Last accessed: 20.06.2021) [in Hungarian].
2. Bolgova, V. V. (2000). Forms of Subjective Right Protection: Theoretical Problems : Dissertation thesis. Samara. URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=15980845 (Last accessed: 20.06.2021) [in Russian].
3. Separate Opinion of the Judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine О. V. Kasminin. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/na05d710-18#Text (Last accessed: 20.06.2021) [in Ukrainian].
4. 1949. évi XX. Törvény A Magyar Népköztársaság. URL: http://www.politikaievkonyv.hu/online/mp20/2-01.html (Last accessed: 20.06.2021).
5. 1989. évi I. törvény az Alkotmány módosításáról URL: http://www.politikaievkonyv.hu/online/mp20/2-01.html (Last accessed: 20.06.2021).
6. Pokol, Béla. (2003). Separation of powers and parliamentarism in Hungary. Eötvös Lóránd University, Budapest. URL: https://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/6861 (Last accessed: 20.06.2021).
7. 1989. évi XXXI. törvény az Alkotmány módosításáról. URL: http://www.politikaievkonyv.hu/online/mp20/2-01.html (Last accessed: 20.06.2021).
8. 1994. évi LXXIV. Törvény a Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmányáról szóló 1949. évi XX. törvény módosításáról URL: http://www.politikaievkonyv.hu/online/mp20/2-01.html (Last accessed: 20.06.2021).
9. Halmai, Gábor. (2018). Silence of transitional constitutions: The «invisible constitution» concept of the Hungarian Constitutional Court. International Journal of Constitutional Law, Volume 16, Issue 3, July, 969–984. URL: https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/moy067 (Last accessed: 28.06.2021).
10. Drinóczi, Tímea, Bień-Kacała, Agnieszka. (2019). Illiberal Constitutionalism: The Case of Hungary and Poland. German Law Journal, Volume 20, Issue 8, December, 1140–1166. URL: https://doi.org/10.1017/glj.2019.83 (Last accessed: 28.06.2021).
11. Sólyom, László. (2003). The Role of Constitutional Courts in the Transition to Democracy: With Special Reference to Hungary. March 1, 2003. URL: https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580903018001008 (Last accessed: 28.06.2021).
12. Bogaards, Matthijs. (2018). De-democratization in Hungary: diffusely defective democracy. Jun 25, 2018. URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2018.1485015 (Last accessed: 28.06.2021).
13. Alkotmány 2010. július 5-i módosítása a Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmányáról szóló 1949. évi XX. törvény módosításáról. URL: https://mkogy.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a1000705.TV (Last accessed: 22.01.2021).
14. Bíró-Nagy, András. (2017). Illiberal Democracy in Hungary: The Social Background and Practical Steps of Building an Illiberal State. Policy Solutions, Hungary, 01/2017. URL: https://www.cidob.org/en/articulos/monografias/illiberals/illiberal_democracy_in_hungary_the_social_background_and_practical_steps_of_building_an_illiberal_state (Last accessed: 28.06.2021).
15. Magyarország Alaptörvényének negyedik módosítása (2013. március 25). URL: https://mkogy.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a1300325.ATV (Last accessed: 28.06.2021).
16. 2020. évi XII. Törvény a koronavírus elleni védekezésről. URL: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=a2000012.tv (Last accessed: 28.06.2021).

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Published
2021-10-02
How to Cite
Tellis , S., & Tkach , D. (2021). Legal mechanisms of implementation of the constitutional status of the President: experience of Hungary . Scientific Papers of the Legislation Institute of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, (5), 78-88. https://doi.org/10.32886/10.32886/instzak.2021.05.09