Genesis of external functions of the Hungarian state from its foundation to the First World War (historical and legal aspect)
The article examines the genesis of the external functions of the Hungarian state from its foundation to the First World War, with an emphasis on the historical and legal aspect. Special attention is paid to the formation of Hungary’s foreign policy in different historical periods of its existence. It is shown that during this period the country was mainly a monarchical form of government, the solution of a problem of international life depended on the will and discretion of the king. In this article the actions of the most known leaders of the Hungarian state from St. Stephen I to October 1914 were analyzed. It is the period when the Hungarian National Council was established and the country’s withdrawal from the Austro-Hungarian Empire was announced.
The aim of the article is to determine the genesis of the external functions of the Hungarian state from its foundation to the First World War.
The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the problem of the genesis of the external functions of the Hungarian state from its foundation to the First World War was not practically studied in a complex way in the Ukrainian scientific literature, especially from the point of analysis of historical and legal aspects.
Conclusions. The article states that in different periods of its existence, Hungary sought to pursue a foreign policy that would ensure the country’s integration into the existing system of European states, independence, sustainable development and protection of its territories.
Among the most known leaders of the Hungarian state, having made a great contribution to the formation and implementation of the country’s foreign policy there are: St. Stephen І, St. Laszlo I, Coloman the Learned, Geza II, Bela III, Andrew II, Louis the Great, Sigismund of Luxembourg, Matthias Corvinus, Francis II Rákóczi, Louis Kossuth, Michael Károlyi.
As for the basic legal documents that significantly influenced foreign policy, it is worth mentioning the Golden Bull issued in 1222 during the reign of King Andrew II. This document did not contain any regulations on Hungary’s foreign policy, but created the conditions for strengthening the state system in the country and thus created the conditions for successful international activities.
The next legal document that defined Hungarian jurisdiction for many years was the Tripartitum (a set of customary law of the Kingdom of Hungary in three parts) – legal code compiled by the royal prothonotary István Werbőczy. It was submitted to the so-called «Dykyi Seim» in 1514 and approved by the king. Having received official sanction in 1517, it became the basis of the jurisdiction of the Kingdom of Hungary (until 1848).
This document also did not concern Hungary’s foreign policy, but systematized customary law and royal laws with some borrowings from Roman and canon law, which strengthened the country's international prestige.
Later on Hungary was ruled by the Habsburgs and Austrian law was in force in the country. The situation changed during the existence of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but still with the rule of imperial law.
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