Theory and practice of application of legal fictions in civil law

  • I. D. Shutak  Professor of the Department of Law of King Danylo University, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine, Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor, Honored Personality of Science and Technique of Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2539-5526
Keywords: legal fiction, legal technique, presumption, civil law, legal regulation, institutions of law, law-making.

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to reveal the theory and practice of legal fiction in civil law, to determine their essential features, to reveal their technical and legal specifics.

The scientific novelty lies in the actualization of further depth study of legal fiction in civil law and in legal science in general. After all, filling gaps in scientific knowledge about legal fiction will allow to adequately identify and describe real legal phenomena.

The necessity of distinguishing between such concepts as legal fictions and fictions in law is argued. It is shown that with the help of legal fiction separate normative provisions are created that regulate specific social relations, institutions of law, in particular the institution of a legal entity, the institution of extraterritoriality, retroactive force of law, etc. Contractual fictions are designed to close some gaps in the conclusion of contracts. Otherwise, if the Civil Code of Ukraine did not contain such fictions for certain agreements, they would be considered unconcluded with the corresponding consequences.

Conclusions. The author concludes that there are causal links between legal fiction as a norm and a method. The specificity of legal fiction is that it is an element of legal technique, as well as a way of expressing the will of the legislator. The anomaly of legal fictions is seen in the signs of fictitiousness of the rule of law, as well as in the fictitiousness of the situation itself, which requires logical consolidation. There is a deviation of the law from its inherent goals by interfering in the development of legal relations of the subjective element. The use of fiction does not help the court to establish the objective truth in the case. The expediency of legal fictions in civil law is justified by their features and functions.

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Published
2021-04-27
How to Cite
Shutak , I. (2021). Theory and practice of application of legal fictions in civil law . Scientific Papers of the Legislation Institute of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, (2), 141-147. https://doi.org/10.32886/instzak.2021.02.14