The emergence and development of European standards of personal data protection

  • Yu. О. Kovalenko  PhD student of International and comparative law Department, Koretsky Institute of State and Law of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9754-5167
Keywords: european standards, personal data protection, the right to personal data protection, European Court of Human Rights, Court of Justice of the European Union.

Abstract

The protection of personal data of an individual is especially relevant with the unrestrained development of information technologies, consequently determining the stages of the emergence of a right to personal data protection and formation of modern standards of protection in this area arises as a serious matter. From this perspective, the definition of the legal principles regulating the protection of personal data in international law is considered. The rationality of adopting a unified international legal instrument in this field, which is of particular practical importance in the context of globalization and technological progress, is emphasized.

The purpose of the article is to identify the main stages of the establishment of the right to the protection of personal data and to analyze topical issues related to the protection of personal data in the light of the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union.

The scientific novelty is to analyze the evolutionary development of the right to the protection of personal data, as well as to provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of theoretical and practical problems associated with the protection of personal data in the Council of Europe and the European Union. Particular attention in this process is devoted to the elaboration of theoretical and methodological principles of personal data protection and consideration of the fundamental positions of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union in this field.

Conclusions: The establishment of standards of personal data protection in international law occurred simultaneously with the development of technologies and information society. Certainly, the existing international standards in the field of data processing create a legal basis for the protection of personal data. To date, the doctrine and practice of international law lack a clear criterion for distinguishing between the right to privacy and the right to the protection of personal data. Given that international legal acts are mostly regional, other acts regulating the personal data processing are of recommendatory nature. Therefore, the lack of a single legal act that would ensure unity and sustainability in the application of the rules on personal data processing creates gaps in the international legal regulation of personal data protection.

References

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13. Case of Rotaru v. Romania [GC], no. 28341/95, §§ 52–62, ECHR 2000-V. URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-58586 (Дата звернення: 15.06.2020).
14. European Commission v. The Bavarian Lager Co. Ltd., Case C-28/08 P, 29 June 2010, ECLI:EU:C:2010:378, § 78. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?language=en&num=C-28/08 (Дата звернення: 15.06.2020).
15. Volker und Markus Schecke GbR (C-92/09) and Hartmut Eifert (C-93/09) v. Land Hessen, Case C-92/09, 9 November 2010, ECLI:EU:C:2010:662, §§ 64–70. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?language=en&num=C-92/09 (Дата звернення: 15.06.2020).
16. Criminal proceedings against Bodil Lindqvist, Case C-101/01, 6 November 2003, ECLI:EU:C:2003:596, §§ 41–46. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?num=C-101/01 (Дата звернення: 15.06.2020).
17. Peter Nowak v. Data Protection Commissioner, Case C-434/16, 20 December 2017, ECLI:EU:C:2017:994, §§ 37–62. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?language=en&num=C-434/16 (Дата звернення: 15.06.2020).
18. Kittichaisaree K., Kuner С. The Growing Importance of Data Protection in Public International Law. Blog of the European Journal of International Law. URL: https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-growing-importance-of-data-protection-in-public-international-law/ (Дата звернення: 15.06.2020).

References:
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3. Council of Europe Convention No. 108 for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data of 28 January 1981. URL: https://rm.coe.int/1680078b37 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
4. Modernised Convention for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data (ETS No. 108) of 18 May 2018. URL: https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=09000016807c65bf#globalcontainer (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
5. Falalieieva, L. G. (2019) Khartiya Yevropeyskoho Soyuzu pro osnovopolozhni prava. Encyclopediya mizhnarodnoho prava, Vol. 3: M – I, pp. 905–911. Kyiv: Academperiodica [in Ukrainian].
6. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Official Journal of the European Union, C 202/02, Vol. 59, 7 June 2016, 389–405. URL: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=OJ:C:2016:202:FULL&from=EN (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
7. Directive 95/46 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data. Official Journal of the European Union, L 281, Vol. 38, 23 November 1995, 31–50. URL: http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/1995/46/oj (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
8. Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation). Official Journal of the European Union, L 119, Vol. 59, May 4, 2016, P. 1–89. URL: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/679/oj (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
9. Case of Leander v. Sweden, no. 9248/81, 26 March 1987, § 48, Series A no. 116. URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57519 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
10. Case of Gaskin v. The United Kingdom, no. 10454/83, 07 July 1989, §§ 42–49, Series A no. 160. URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-57491 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
11. Case of Z v. Finland, no. 22009/93, 25 February 1997, § 95, Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1997-I. URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-58033 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
12. Case of Amann v. Switzerland [GC], no. 27798/95, §§ 62–65, ECHR 2000-II. URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/tur?i=001-58497 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
13. Case of Rotaru v. Romania [GC], no. 28341/95, §§ 52–62, ECHR 2000-V. URL: http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-58586 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
14. European Commission v. The Bavarian Lager Co. Ltd., Case C-28/08 P, 29 June 2010, ECLI:EU:C:2010:378, § 78. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?language=en&num=C-28/08 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
15. Volker und Markus Schecke GbR (C-92/09) and Hartmut Eifert (C-93/09) v. Land Hessen, Case C-92/09, 9 November 2010, ECLI:EU:C:2010:662, §§ 64–70. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?language=en&num=C-92/09 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
16. Criminal proceedings against Bodil Lindqvist, C-101/01, 6 November 2003, ECLI:EU:C:2003:596, §§ 41–46. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?num=C-101/01 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
17. Peter Nowak v. Data Protection Commissioner, Case C-434/16, 20 December 2017, ECLI:EU:C:2017:994, §§ 37–62. URL: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?language=en&num=C-434/16 (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).
18. Kittichaisaree, K., Kuner, С. The Growing Importance of Data Protection in Public International Law. Blog of the European Journal of International Law. URL: https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-growing-importance-of-data-protection-in-public-international-law/ (Last accessed: 15.06.2020).

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Published
2020-09-27
How to Cite
Kovalenko  , Y. (2020). The emergence and development of European standards of personal data protection . Scientific Papers of the Legislation Institute of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, (5), 59-67. Retrieved from https://instzak.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1847