Development of international legal relations in the field of combating the financing of terrorism prior to September 11, 2001

  • M. Yu. Holik  Postgraduate student, Department of European Law and Comparative Jurisprudence, Law school, Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5415-0117
Keywords: 9/11, terrorism, terrorist financing, money laundering, United Nations, UN Security Council, Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Abstract

The capabilities of terrorist organizations directly depend on their financial support. The 9/11 events clearly demonstrated the high cost of belated international measures in the fight against terrorist financing.

The purpose of the article is to analyze development of international legal relations in the field of combating the financing of terrorism from the moment of their origin to September 11, 2001.

The scientific novelty of the article is to determine the preconditions for the formation of an effective international organizational and legal mechanism to combat the financing of terrorism after the 9/11 attacks.

Conclusions. During the 1990s, the international community gradually developed methods and ways to counter the enrichment of terrorists, which became the legal basis for further development of legal regulation in the fight against terrorist financing. The positive achievements of the international community, which played an important role in the formation of an effective international organizational and legal mechanism to combat the financing of terrorism, include:

1) the establishment by the UN Security Council of a mechanism for imposing sanctions on state and non-state sponsors of terrorism under the mandatory UN Charter Chapter VII powers to maintain international peace and security. The first international legal document in this area was the Resolution 748, adopted by the UN Security Council on March 31, 1992, which essentially marked the emergence of international legal relations in the field of combating the financing of terrorism;

2) the use of anti-money laundering strategy as a template in the development of counter-terrorist financing strategy due to the similarity of terrorist financing methods with money laundering methods;

3) the adoption of the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism on December 9, 1999, which defined terrorist financing and laid the foundation for the formation of an international organizational and legal mechanism to combat the financing of terrorism. Since the 9/11 attacks, the number of parties to the Convention has increased from 4 to 189 out of a total of 193 UN member states, suggesting that there is a dominant vision in international law in tackling the financing of terrorism;

4) shifting the international community’s focus in counter-terrorist financing from states to international terrorist organizations already after the intensification of al Qaeda’s terrorist activities in 1998.

References

1. Міжнародна конвенція про боротьбу з фінансуванням тероризму від 9 грудня 1999 року. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_518#Text (Дата звернення: 14.07.2020).
2. Декларація про заходи ліквідації міжнародного тероризму від 9 грудня 1994 року. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_502#Text (Дата звернення: 14.07.2020).
3. Koh, J.-M. (2006). Suppressing Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering. Springer.
4. Clunan, A. (2006). The fight against terrorist financing. Political Science Quarterly, 121(4), 569–596.
5. United Nations Treaty Collection. International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism. URL: https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=XVIII-11&chapter=18 (Дата звернення: 14.07.2020).
6. Bantekas, I. (2014). The international law on terrorist financing. In: B. Saul. Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism, pp. 121–135. Edward Elgar.
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References:
1. General Assembly of the United Nations. (1999). International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism dated of December 9, 1999. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_518#Text (Last accessed: 14.07.2020) [in Ukrainian].
2. General Assembly of the United Nations. (1994). Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism dated of December 9, 1994. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_502#Text (Last accessed 14.07.2020) [in Russian].
3. Koh, J.-M. (2006). Suppressing Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering. Springer.
4. Clunan, A. (2006). The fight against terrorist financing. Political Science Quarterly, 121(4), 569–596.
5.. International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism / United Nations Treaty Collection. URL: https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=XVIII-11&chapter=18 (Last accessed: 14.07.2020).
6. Bantekas, I. (2014). The international law on terrorist financing. In: B. Saul. Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism, pp. 121–135. Edward Elgar.
7. Financial Action Task Force. (2018). International Standards on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism & Proliferation. URL: https://fiu.gov.ua/assets/userfiles/200/Міжнародні%20стандарти/FATF%20Recommendations_UKR_17_12_2018.pdf (Last accessed: 14.07.2020) [in Ukrainian].
8. Ryder, N. (2015). The Financial War on Terrorism: A review of counter-terrorist financing strategies since 2001. Routledge.
9. Vaitsekhovska, O. (2019). International financial legal order: theoretical principles and current state of development. Druk Art [in Ukrainian].

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Published
2020-09-27
How to Cite
Holik , M. (2020). Development of international legal relations in the field of combating the financing of terrorism prior to September 11, 2001 . Scientific Papers of the Legislation Institute of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, (5), 32-38. Retrieved from https://instzak.com/index.php/journal/article/view/1845