Legislation of Russia and Ukraine in the field of intelligence activities: comparative legal aspects


  • V. V. Proshchaiev PhD in Law, Docent, Assistant Professor of the Department of the Institute of Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine
Keywords: comparative law, intelligence agencies, intelligence activities, organization and activities of special services.

Abstract

The purpose of the article is to search and reveal the peculiarities of the legislative definition of the legal basis for the functioning of the intelligence agencies of the Russian Federation through the prism of comparing these principles with the existing domestic legislation regarding the organization and activities of the foreign intelligence agencies of Ukraine.The scientific novelty is that for the first time, on the basis of legal comparativism, the legal regulation of the organization and activity of the foreign intelligence agencies of Ukraine and the Russian Federation has been analyzed by comparing the national legislation with the legislation of the Russian Federation. The factors that led legislators from different countries to adopt legislative acts in the sphere of intelligence activities were explored. The differences in legal orders concerning the activity of intelligence of the two states in terms of goals, tasks, spheres of application of methods, forces and means are shown. It is determined that some provisions of RF legislation on foreign intelligence can be taken into account for the improvement of domestic legislation.Conclusions. According to the results of the study, the main positive points in the national legislation are highlighted, namely:the existence of two fundamental legislative acts regulating the activities of intelligence agencies. These are the Laws of Ukraine «On Intelligence Authorities of Ukraine» and «On the Service of Foreign Intelligence of Ukraine». The Russian legislator was limited to adopting only one Law «On Foreign Intelligence», leaving virtually no legal regulation on many aspects of the activities of a separate independent intelligence agency, which is the SEI of the Russian Federation;definition of the legal requirements of the main categories of intelligence activities (intelligence activities, intelligence, intelligence agencies, special intelligence), which is not in Russian legislation;definition for intelligence agencies of a wide range of tasks, including law enforcement. Instead, the RF Law «On Foreign Intelligence» does not have any tasks regarding the participation of intelligence in the fight against terrorism, international organized crime, drug trafficking, illicit trafficking in weapons and technology of its production, illegal migration, etc.;granting of the right to use methods and means of operational-search activity for obtaining intelligence information. In accordance with Russian legislation, operative-search activities are carried out solely to ensure their own security.The main positive aspects of Russian legislation include:provision of external intelligence with own licensing and certification of the right to purchase, develop (with the exception of cryptographic means of protection), the creation, operation of information systems, communication systems and data transmission systems, as well as means of protecting information from leakage through technical channels;determination of the legal provision of the fact that intelligence officers can not have dual citizenship and subject to mandatory state dactyloscopic registration;the existence of a legal provision that a person providing confidential assistance to an external intelligence agency of the Russian Federation and not a citizen of the Russian Federation may be accepted, at his own request, to the citizenship of the Russian Federation in the manner prescribed by federal laws.In the legislation of both countries, besides positive moments, there are also controversial legislative provisions, but their detection, studying and improvement in further law-making activities will significantly improve the functioning of the entire intelligence community in Ukraine.

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Published
2019-04-25
How to Cite
Proshchaiev, V. (2019). Legislation of Russia and Ukraine in the field of intelligence activities: comparative legal aspects. Scientific Papers of the Legislation Institute of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, (2), 74-81. https://doi.org/10.32886/instzak.2019.02.08